Category Archives: Covenant

“Christ, the Sun of Righteousness” by John Calvin

“The Lord held to this orderly plan in administering the covenant of His mercy: as the day of full revelation approached with the passing of time, the more He increased each day the brightness of its manifestation.

Accordingly, at the beginning when the first promise of salvation was given to Adam (Gen. 3:15) it glowed like a feeble spark.

Then, as it was added to, the light grew in fullness, breaking forth increasingly and shedding its radiance more widely. At last– when all the clouds were dispersed– Christ, the Sun of Righteousness, fully illumined the whole earth.”

–John Calvin, Institutes of the Christian Religion (ed. John T. McNeill; trans. Ford Lewis Battles; vol. 1; The Library of Christian Classics; Louisville, KY: Westminster John Knox Press, 2011), 1: 446. (2.10.20)

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“What is the church?” by Jonathan Leeman

“So Christ came declaring a kingdom, but then He did something a little more personal. The king went to His death as a personal substitute for sinners. He offered a new covenant and sealed it with His blood.

With this act, He joined a people to Himself as fellow heirs and vice-regents. They too would inherit the earth like Adam, bear a great name and be a blessing like Abraham, enter God’s rest like Israel, and rule together with Christ like David.

What is the church? It is the new-covenant people of Christ. It’s the people of His holy love. It’s the people who are united to Him and share His identity, because He identified Himself with them in His incarnation, baptism, death, and resurrection.

He exchanged His life and righteousness for theirs. Whereas once Adam was our covenantal head, now Christ is our covenantal head.”

–Jonathan Leeman, The Church and The Surprising Offense of God’s Love (Wheaton: Crossway, 2010), 241-242.

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“Jesus Christ ushers in the new covenant” by Stephen Wellum

“In the Old Testament none of the covenant mediators– whether Adam, Noah, Abraham, Moses, or David– fulfilled their role and brought about the promise; they only typified and anticipated the one to come (Rom 5:14). Only our Lord Jesus Christ, the God-man, fulfills the roles of the previous covenantal mediators and brings about the promises stretching back to Gen 3:15.

That is why the New Testament presents Christ as nothing less than the Lord as well as the last Adam, the true seed of Abraham, David’s greater Son, who ushers in a new covenant– a covenant which all the previous covenants anticipated and typified. In Christ, all the promises of God are yes and amen (2 Cor 1:20).

That is why in Jesus and His cross work, the desperate plight begun in Eden now finds its solution as the last Adam, the obedient Son, has accomplished His saving work. The promise that God Himself must be the Savior of His people is fulfilled for He Himself is the Lord. Indeed, the death of Jesus, the crime of all crimes, is nevertheless determined by the divine plan (Acts 2:23).

Why? To bring to fulfillment what God had promised through the prophets, that the Messiah would suffer (Acts 3:18) in order to save His people from their sins (Matt 1:21). In Jesus Christ, the prophetic anticipation of God’s coming to save in and through David’s greater Son is fulfilled.”

–Stephen J. Wellum, “Baptism and the Relationships Between the Covenants,” in Believer’s Baptism: Sign of the New Covenant in Christ, Eds. Thomas Schreiner and Shawn Wright (Nashville: B&H, 2006), 131-132.

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